28 June 2017

Red Hat OpenShift and Orchestrating Containers With KUBERNETES!

Red Hat OpenShift and  Orchestrating Containers With KUBERNETES!


Kubernetes is a tool for orchestrating and managing Docker containers. Red Hat provides several ways you can use Kubernetes that include:

  • OpenShift Container Platform: Kubernetes is built into OpenShift, allowing you to configure Kubernetes, assign host computers as Kubernetes nodes, deploy containers to those nodes in pods, and manage containers across multiple systems. The OpenShift Container Platform web console provides a browser-based interface to using Kubernetes.
  • Container Development Kit (CDK): The CDK provides Vagrantfiles to launch the CDK with either OpenShift (which includes Kubernetes) or a bare-bones Kubernetes configuration. This gives you the choice of using the OpenShift tools or Kubernetes commands (such as kubectl) to manage Kubernetes.
  • Kubernetes in Red Hat Enterprise Linux: To try out Kubernetes on a standard Red Hat Enterprise Linux server system, you can install a combination of RPM packages and container images to manually set up your own Kubernetes configuration.

Resilient microservices with Kubernetes - Mete Atamel

Kubernetes, or k8s (k, 8 characters, s...get it?), or “kube” if you’re into brevity, is an open source platform that automates Linux container operations. It eliminates many of the manual processes involved in deploying and scaling containerized applications. In other words, you can cluster together groups of hosts running Linux containers, and Kubernetes helps you easily and efficiently manage those clusters. These clusters can span hosts across public, private, or hybrid clouds.

The Illustrated Children's Guide to Kubernetes

Kubernetes was originally developed and designed by engineers at Google. Google was one of the early contributors to Linux container technology and has talked publicly about how everything at Google runs in containers. (This is the technology behind Google’s cloud services.) Google generates more than 2 billion container deployments a week—all powered by an internal platform: Borg. Borg was the predecessor to Kubernetes and the lessons learned from developing Borg over the years became the primary influence behind much of the Kubernetes technology.

Fun fact: The seven spokes in the Kubernetes logo refer to the project’s original name, “Project Seven of Nine.”

Kubernetes & Container Engine

Red Hat was one of the first companies to work with Google on Kubernetes, even prior to launch, and has become the 2nd leading contributor to Kubernetes upstream project. Google donated the Kubernetes project to the newly formed Cloud Native Computing Foundation in 2015.

An Introduction to Kubernetes

Why do you need Kubernetes?

Real production apps span multiple containers. Those containers must be deployed across multiple server hosts. Kubernetes gives you the orchestration and management capabilities required to deploy containers, at scale, for these workloads. Kubernetes orchestration allows you to build application services that span multiple containers, schedule those containers across a cluster, scale those containers, and manage the health of those containers over time.

Kubernetes also needs to integrate with networking, storage, security, telemetry and other services to provide a comprehensive container infrastructure.

Of course, this depends on how you’re using containers in your environment. A rudimentary application of Linux containers treats them as efficient, fast virtual machines. Once you scale this to a production environment and multiple applications, it's clear that you need multiple, colocated containers working together to deliver the individual services. This significantly multiplies the number of containers in your environment and as those containers accumulate, the complexity also grows.

Hands on Kubernetes 

Kubernetes fixes a lot of common problems with container proliferation—sorting containers together into a ”pod.” Pods add a layer of abstraction to grouped containers, which helps you schedule workloads and provide necessary services—like networking and storage—to those containers. Other parts of Kubernetes help you load balance across these pods and ensure you have the right number of containers running to support your workloads.

With the right implementation of Kubernetes—and with the help of other open source projects like Atomic Registry, Open vSwitch, heapster, OAuth, and SELinux— you can orchestrate all parts of your container infrastructure.

What can you do with Kubernetes?

The primary advantage of using Kubernetes in your environment is that it gives you the platform to schedule and run containers on clusters of physical or virtual machines. More broadly, it helps you fully implement and rely on a container-based infrastructure in production environments. And because Kubernetes is all about automation of operational tasks, you can do many of the same things that other application platforms or management systems let you do, but for your containers.

Red Hat is Driving Kubernetes/Container Security Forward - Clayton Coleman

Kubernetes’ features provide everything you need to deploy containerized applications. Here are the highlights:

  • Container Deployments & Rollout Control. Describe your containers and how many you want with a “Deployment.” Kubernetes will keep those containers running and handle deploying changes (such as updating the image or changing environment variables) with a “rollout.” You can pause, resume, and rollback changes as you like.
  • Resource Bin Packing. You can declare minimum and maximum compute resources (CPU & Memory) for your containers. Kubernetes will slot your containers into where ever they fit. This increases your compute efficiency and ultimately lowers costs.
  • Built-in Service Discovery & Autoscaling. Kubernetes can automatically expose your containers to the internet or other containers in the cluster. It automatically load-balances traffic across matching containers. Kubernetes supports service discovery via environment variables and DNS, out of the box. You can also configure CPU-based autoscaling for containers for increased resource utilization.
  • Heterogeneous Clusters. Kubernetes runs anywhere. You can build your Kubernetes cluster for a mix of virtual machines (VMs) running the cloud, on-prem, or bare metal in your datacenter. Simply choose the composition according to your requirements.
  • Persistent Storage. Kubernetes includes support for persistent storage connected to stateless application containers. There is support for Amazon Web Services EBS, Google Cloud Platform persistent disks, and many, many more.
  • High Availability Features. Kubernetes is planet scale. This requires special attention to high availability features such as multi-master or cluster federation. Cluster federation allows linking clusters together so that if one cluster goes down containers can automatically move to another cluster.

These key features make Kubernetes well suited for running different application architectures from monolithic web applications, to highly distributed microservice applications, and even batch driven applications.

With Kubernetes you can:

  • Orchestrate containers across multiple hosts.
  • Make better use of hardware to maximize resources needed to run your enterprise apps.
  • Control and automate application deployments and updates.
  • Mount and add storage to run stateful apps.
  • Scale containerized applications and their resources on the fly.
  • Declaratively manage services, which guarantees the deployed applications are always running how you deployed them.
  • Health-check and self-heal your apps with autoplacement, autorestart, autoreplication, and autoscaling.

Kubernetes, however, relies on other projects to fully provide these orchestrated services. With the addition of other open source projects, you can fully realize the power of Kubernetes. These necessary pieces include (among others):

  • Registry, through projects like Atomic Registry or Docker Registry.
  • Networking, through projects like OpenvSwitch and intelligent edge routing.
  • Telemetry, through projects such as heapster, kibana, hawkular, and elastic.
  • Security, through projects like LDAP, SELinux, RBAC, and OAUTH with multi-tenancy layers.
  • Automation, with the addition of Ansible playbooks for installation and cluster life-cycle management.
  • Services, through a rich catalog of precreated content of popular app patterns.
  • Get all of this, prebuilt and ready to deploy, with Red Hat OpenShift

Container Management with OpenShift Red Hat - Open Cloud Day 2016

Learn to speak Kubernetes

Like any technology, there are a lot of words specific to the technology that can be a barrier to entry. Let's break down some of the more common terms to help you understand Kubernetes.

Master: The machine that controls Kubernetes nodes. This is where all task assignments originate.

Node: These machines perform the requested, assigned tasks. The Kubernetes master controls them.

Pod: A group of one or more containers deployed to a single node. All containers in a pod share an IP address, IPC, hostname, and other resources. Pods abstract network and storage away from the underlying container. This lets you move containers around the cluster more easily.

Replication controller:  This controls how many identical copies of a pod should be running somewhere on the cluster.

Service: This decouples work definitions from the pods. Kubernetes service proxies automatically get service requests to the right pod—no matter where it moves to in the cluster or even if it’s been replaced.

Kubelet: This service runs on nodes and reads the container manifests and ensures the defined containers are started and running.

kubectl: This is the command line configuration tool for Kubernetes.

Check out the Kubernetes Reference: https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/

Using Kubernetes in production

Kubernetes is open source. And, as such, there’s not a formalized support structure around that technology—at least not one you’d trust your business on. If you had an issue with your implementation of Kubernetes, while running in production, you’re not going to be very happy. And your customers probably won’t, either.

Performance and Scalability Tuning Kubernetes for OpenShift and Docker by Jeremy Eder, Red Hat

That’s where Red Hat OpenShift comes in. OpenShift is Kubernetes for the enterprise—and a lot more. OpenShift includes all of the extra pieces of technology that makes Kubernetes powerful and viable for the enterprise, including: registry, networking, telemetry, security, automation, and services. With OpenShift, your developers can make new containerized apps, host them, and deploy them in the cloud with the scalability, control, and orchestration that can turn a good idea into new business quickly and easily.

Best of all, OpenShift is supported and developed by the #1 leader in open source, Red Hat.

Kubernetes runs on top of an operating system (Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host, for example) and interacts with pods of containers running on the nodes. The Kubernetes master takes the commands from an administrator (or DevOps team) and relays those instructions to the subservient nodes. This handoff works with a multitude of services to automatically decide which node is best suited for the task. It then allocates resources and assigns the pods in that node to fulfill the requested work.

So, from an infrastructure point of view, there is little change to how you’ve been managing containers. Your control over those containers happens at a higher level, giving you better control without the need to micromanage each separate container or node. Some work is necessary, but it’s mostly a question of assigning a Kubernetes master, defining nodes, and defining pods.

What about docker?
The docker technology still does what it's meant to do. When kubernetes schedules a pod to a node, the kubelet on that node will instruct docker to launch the specified containers. The kubelet then continuously collects the status of those containers from docker and aggregates that information in the master. Docker pulls containers onto that node and starts and stops those containers as normal. The difference is that an automated system asks docker to do those things instead of the admin doing so by hand on all nodes for all containers.

OpenStack Compute for Containers
While many customers are already running containers on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 as an OpenStack guest operating system, we are also seeing greater interest in Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host as a container-optimized guest OS option. And while most customers run their containers in guest VMs driven by Nova, we are also seeing growing interest in customers who want to integrate with OpenStack Ironic to run containers on bare metal hosts. With OpenStack, customers can manage both virtual and physical compute infrastructure to serve as the foundation for their container application workloads.

Earlier this year we also demonstrated how OpenStack administrators could use Heat to deploy a cluster of Nova instances running Kubernetes. The Heat templates contributed by Red Hat simplify the provisioning of new container host clusters, which are ready to run container workloads orchestrated by Kubernetes. Heat templates also serve at the foundation for OpenStack Magnum API to make container orchestration engines like Kubernetes available as first class resources in OpenStack. We also recently created Heat templates to deploy OpenShift 3 and added them to the OpenStack Community App Catalog. Our next step is to make elastic provisioning and deprovisioning of Kubernetes nodes based on resource demand a reality.

Building Clustered Applications with Kubernetes and Docker - Stephen Watt, Red Hat

Linux is at the foundation of OpenStack and modern container infrastructures. While we are excited to see Microsoft invest in Docker to bring containers to Windows, they are still Linux containers after all. Red Hat’s first major contribution was bringing containers to enterprise Linux and RPM-based distributions like Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and CentOS. Since then we launched Project Atomic and made available Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host as a lightweight, container-optimized, immutable Linux platform for enterprise customers. With the recent surge in new container-optimized Linux distributions being announced, we see this as more than just a short term trend. This year we plan to release Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7.2 and talk about how customers are using it as the foundation for a containerized application workloads.

Red Hat Container Strategy

Docker has defined the packaging format and runtime for containers, which has now become the defacto standard for the industry, as embodied in OCI and the runC reference implementation. Red Hat continues to contribute extensively to the Docker project and is now helping to drive governance of OCI and implementation of runC. We are committed to helping to make Docker more secure, both in the container runtime and content and working with our partners to enable customers to safely containerize their most mission critical applications.

Architecture Overview: Kubernetes with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.1

Kubernetes is Red Hat’s choice for container orchestration and management and it is also seeing significant growth with more than 500 contributors and nearly 20,000 commits to the Kubernetes project in just over a year. While there is a lot of innovation in the container orchestration space, we see Kubernetes as another emerging standard given the combination of Google’s experience running container workloads at massive scale, Red Hat’s contributions and experience making open source work in enterprise environments, and the growing community surrounding it.

Microservices with Docker, Kubernetes, and Jenkins

This “LDK” stack is the foundation of Red Hat OpenShift 3 and Atomic Enterprise Platform announced recently at Red Hat Summit. It’s also the foundation of the Google Container Engine which is now generally available and other vendor and customer solutions that were featured recently at LinuxCon during the Kubernetes 1.0 launch.

Red Hat has helped drive innovation in this new Container stack while also driving integration with OpenStack. We have focused our efforts on integrating in the three core pillars of OpenStack – compute, networking and storage. Here’s how:

OpenStack Networking for Containers
Red Hat leverages Kubernetes networking model to enable networking across multiple containers, running across multiple hosts. In Kubernetes, each container (or “pod”) has its own IP address and can communicate with other containers/pods, regardless of which host they run on. Red Hat integrated RHEL Atomic Host with Flannel for container networking and also developed a new OVS-based SDN solution that is included in OpenShift 3 and Atomic Enterprise Platform. But in OpenStack environments, users may want to leverage Neutron and its rich ecosystem of networking plugins to handle networking for containers. We’ve been working in both the OpenStack and Kubernetes community to integrate Neutron with Kubernetes networking to enable this.

OpenShift Enterprise 3.1 vs kubernetes

OpenStack Storage for Containers
Red Hat also leverages Kubernetes storage volumes to enable users to run stateful services in containers like databases, message queues and other stateful apps. Users map their containers to persistent storage clusters, leveraging Kubernetes storage plugins like  NFS, iSCSI, Gluster, Ceph, and more. The OpenStack Cinder storage plugin currently under development will enable users to map to storage volumes managed by OpenStack Cinder.

Linux, Docker, and Kubernetes form the core of Red Hat’s enterprise container infrastructure. This LDK stack integrates with OpenStack’s compute, storage and networking services to provide an infrastructure platform for running containers. In addition to these areas, there are others that we consider critical for enterprises who are building a container-based infrastructure. A few of these include:

  • Container Security – Red Hat is working with Docker and the Open Containers community on container security. Security is commonly cited as one of the leading concerns limiting container adoption and Red Hat is tackling this on multiple levels. The first is multi-tenant isolation to help prevent containers from exploiting other containers or the underlying container host. Red Hat contributed SELinux integration to Docker, to provide a layered security model for container isolation and is also contributing to the development of features like privileged containers and user namespaces. The second area is securing container images to verify trusted content, which is another key concern. Red Hat has driven innovation in areas like image signing, scanning and certification and we recently announced our work with Black Duck to help make application containers free from known vulnerabilities
  • Enterprise Registry – Red Hat provides a standard Docker registry as a fully integrated component of both OpenShift and Atomic. This enables customers to more securely store and manage their own Docker images for enterprise deployments. Administrators can manage who has access to images, determine which images can be deployed and manage image updates.
  • Logging & Metrics – Red Hat has already integrated the ELK stack with Red Hat Enterprise Linux OpenStack Platform. It is doing the same in OpenShift and Atomic to provide users with aggregate logging for containers. This will enable administrators to get aggregated logs across the platform and also simplify log access for application developers. This work extends into integrated metrics for containerized applications and infrastructure.
  • Container Management – Red Hat CloudForms enables infrastructure and operations teams to manage application workloads across many different deployment fabrics – physical, virtual, public cloud and also private clouds based on OpenStack. CloudForms is being extended to manage container-based workloads in its next release. This will provide a single pane of glass to manage container-based workloads on OpenStack infrastructure.
Ultimately the goal of containers is to provide a better way to package and deploy your applications and enable application developers. Containers provide many benefits to developers like portability, fast deployment times and a broad ecosystem of packaged container images for a wide array of software stacks. As applications become more componentized and highly distributed with the advent of microservices architectures, containers provide an efficient way to deploy these microservices without the overhead of traditional VMs.

Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform Overview

But to provide a robust application platform and enable DevOps and Continuous Delivery, we also need to solve other challenges. Red Hat is tackling many of these in OpenShift, which is a containerized application platform that natively integrates Docker and is built on Red Hat’s enterprise container stack. These challenges include:

Build Automation – Developers moving to containerize their applications will likely need to update their build tools and processes to build container images. Red Hat is working on automating the Docker image build process at scale and has developed innovations like OpenShift source-to-image which enables users to push code changes and patches to their application containers, without being concerned with the details of Dockerfiles or Docker images.
Deployment Automation and CI/CD – Developers will also need to determine how containers will impact their deployment workflows and integrate with their CI/CD systems. Red Hat is working on automating common application deployment patterns with containers like rolling, canary and A/B deployments. We are also working to enable CI/CD with containers with work underway in OpenShift upstream projects like Origin and Fabric8
Containerized Middleware and Data Services – Administrators will need to provide their developers with trusted images to build their applications. Red Hat provides multiple language runtime images in OpenShift including Java, Node.js, Python, Ruby and more. We are also providing containerized middleware images like JBoss EAP, A-MQ and Fuse as well as database images from Red Hat’s Software Collections including MongoDB, Postgres and MySQL.
Developer Self Service – Ultimately developers want to access all of these capabilities without having to call on IT. With OpenShift, developers can access self-service Web, CLI and IDE interfaces to build and deploy containerized applications. OpenShift’s developer and application-centric view provide a great complement to OpenStack.

Containers Anywhere with OpenShift by Red Hat

This is just a sampling of the work we are doing in Containers and complements all the great work Red Hat contributes to in the OpenStack community. OpenStack and Containers are two examples of the tremendous innovation happening in open source and this week we are showcasing how they are great together.

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